Morphological Features of Foreign Body Giant Cells in Experimental Conditions

Mariya A. Zatolokina, Ekaterina S. Mishina, Alexander A. Sozykin, Marina V. Gorbunova, Alexander G. Alekseev

International Journal of Biomedicine. 2021;11(2):212-215.
DOI: 10.21103/Article11(2)_OA15
Originally published June 5, 2021


Background: The purpose of our work was determined by the accumulation of a significant amount of experimental material under the conditions of implantation of a foreign body, a mesh implant, into the region of the anterior abdominal wall in order to obtain experimental inflammation, in which foreign body giant cells (FBGCs) were constantly visualized as reactive formations. This research aimed to study the dynamics of morphological changes in FBGCs under conditions of experimental implantation of a foreign body, a mesh implant, and the possible mechanism of their formation
Methods and Results: This study was carried out on male Wistar rats, in which a foreign body was implanted—a mesh endoprosthesis made of polypropylene—in the region of the anterior abdominal wall under the aponeurosis of the rectus abdominis muscles. A section of the anterior abdominal wall with the implanted endoprosthesis was excised on Days 10, 21, 30, and 60 after surgery, fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution. The obtained samples were embedded in paraffin according to standard prescriptions; histological sections with a thickness of 5-7µm were made and stained with H&E, according to the methods of Van Gieson and Mallory, and an immunohistochemical study was performed using the marker of cell proliferation (Ki-67). The revealed structural features of multinucleated cells were recorded by microphotography using a photo attachment and a Levenhuk video camera (USA).
During the study, it was revealed that the amount, functional activity and morphological diversity of FBGCs gradually increased, reaching a maximum by Day 30 of the experiment. At a later date, some of them died, while the remaining part was differentiated, splitting into small multinucleated cells and mononuclear elements, morphologically identical to macrophages and fibroblasts. The formation of FBGCs continued as long as the mesh implant was in the body.
Conclusion: FBGCs are reactive formations that arise in response to various endo- and exogenous irritation.

foreign body giant cells • multinucleated giant cells • endoprosthetics • reactivity • phagocytosis

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