Influence of Diet Balanced with Essential Amino Acids / Keto Acid Analogs and High-Nutrient Blend on the Progression of Renal Failure in Patients in the Pre-Dialysis Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease Caused by Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

Yury S. Milovanov, PhD, ScD*; Lyudmila Y. Milovanova, PhD; A.A. Mikhailov; I.I. Aleksandrova

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation

*Corresponding author: Yury S. Milovanov, PhD, ScD, Leading Researcher of the Nephrology Department, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 11, Rossolimo st., building 4, 119992, Moscow, Russian Federation.Tel: 7-903-5205122 (mobile). E-mail:

Published: September 24, 2013


The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a low protein diet (LPD) balanced with essential amino acids (EAA) / keto acid analogs (KAA) and protein “SUPRO-XT 219D” in the composition of the high-energy nutrient blend (HENB) for slow down of renal failure in patients in the pre-dialysis stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) induced by systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD).

Material and Methods: In this study, 46 patients (35 with systemic lupus erythematosus and 15 with various forms of systemic vasculitis) with CKD in stages 3-4 were randomized into three groups. Group 1 (18 patients: 10 with CKD stage 3 and 8 with  CKD stage 4) was given LPD (0.6 g protein per kg of body weight per day comprising 0.3 g of vegetable protein and 0.3 g of animal protein) balanced with EAA/KAA (Diet #1); Group 2 (18 patients: 9 with CKD stage 3 and 9 with  CKD stage 4) was given  the same LPD, but with an increased vegetable protein content (purified soy protein SUPRO-XT 219D) up to 0.4 g/kg/day in the composition of HENB (Diet #2); Group 3, comparison group,  (10 patients: 7 with CKD stage 3 and 3 with  CKD stage 4) was given a free diet (Diet #3) based on the patient’s personal preferences. Both options of LPD were offered to all the patients of Groups 1 and 2 regardless of their baseline nutritional status (NS). The duration of the observation was 24-48 months.  The NS was evaluated based on the bioelectrical impedance analysis. The protein and calorie intake was calculated from the 3-day food diary.

Results: Among the 46 patients with CKD stages 3-4, NS impairment was detected in almost half the patients (45.7%). Both forms of LPD were well tolerated. The correction of the nutritive impairment was achieved in patients with baseline impaired NS; the remaining patients of Groups 1 and 2 demonstrated the safety of NS against LPD. At the same time, among Group 3 patients, during the progression of renal disorders, the NS rate was observed to increase by 1.5 times (from 40% to 60%). Slowing down the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline was observed in the patients treated with LPD for at least a year, which was more significant in the subgroup fed with the increased quota of vegetable protein SUPRO-XT 219D.

Conclusion:  Early restriction (on pre-dialysis stage) of the protein intake (0.6 g/kg/day) supplemented with HENB and EAA/KAA revealed a positive effect on the NS of CKD patients and was found to be able to slow down the GFR decline.

systemic autoimmune diseases; chronic kidney disease; impairment of nutritional status; essential amino acids; keto acid analogs; SUPRO-XT 219D.

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Int J Biomed. 2013; 3(3):184-187. © 2013 International Medical Research and Development Corporation. All rights reserved.