¹Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, Russian Federation
²Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Moscow, Russian Federation
³Irkutsk State Medical University, Irkutsk, Russian Federation
*Corresponding author: Inna F. Antoshina. Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology. 7Dubrovicy village, apt. 83, 142132, Podolsk district, Moscow region, Russian Federation. Tel: 7-9250-367919. Fax: 7-499-1935582 E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe and potentially fatal neurological disease among population of endemic areas from northern China and Japan, through Russia to more than 16 European countries. Beginning from 1970s a 400% increase in TBE morbidity had been registered. One of the striking epidemiological features of TBE has been periodic variation in the occurrence and severity of TBE infections in different endemic regions from Far Eastern Russia to Europe. Peak values last 1 -2 years and trough values last for 6-7 years separated by intervals of gradual transition over 1-5 years. Last maximal TBE morbidity rate had been observed in 1999 with 11,356 TBE cases in Eurasia (www.tbe-info.com) (and among them 9,955 – in Russia alone). Despite the availability of effective vaccine, an average immunization rate in endemic regions of Russia do not exceed a few percent (5-7%), in Europe vary from 6% in Baltics to 13% in Germany and 88% in Austria. Vaccines are based on Far Eastern and European strains of TBE virus in spite of evident prevalence of Siberian genetic subtype in endemic regions of Russia and surrounding countries. Moreover, TBE is an immunopathological disease, where the inflammatory CD8+ T cell-mediated reactions contribute to neuronal damage and could lead to a fatal outcome. Our report summarizes the available data on the TBE virus influence on immune response impairments with focus on comparison of cytokine genes expression levels after infection and immunization.
- Mansfield KL, Johnson N, Phipps LP, Stephenson JR, et al. Tick-borne encephalitis virus – a review of an emerging zoonosis. J Gen Virol 2009; 90:1781-1794.
- Růzek D, Salát J, Palus M, Gritsun TS, Gould EA, Dyková I et al. CD8+ T-cells mediate immunopathology in tick-borne encephalitis. Virology 2009; 384(1):1-6.
- Grard G, Moureau G, Charrel RN, Lemasson JJ, et al. Genetic characterization of tick-borne flaviviruses: new insights into evolution, pathogenetic determinants and taxonomy. Virology 2007; 361:80-92.
- Onishchenko GG. Distribution of viral natural focal infection in Russian Federation and measures of their prophylaxis. Epidemiology and infection diseases 2000; 4:4-8.
- Haglund, M. Occurrence of TBE in areas previously considered being non-endemic: Scandinavian data generate an international study by the International Scientific Working Group for TBE (ISW-TBE). Int J Med Microbiol 2002; 291 Suppl 33: 50–54.
- Broker, M, Gniel, D. New foci of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Europe: consequences for travellers from abroad. Travel Med Infect Dis 2003; 1:181–184.
- Donoso Mantke, O, Scha ̈dler, R, Niedrig, M. A survey on cases of tick-borne encephalitis in European countries. Euro Surveill 2008; 13: pii:18848.
- Sumilo, D, Bormane, A, Asokliene, L, Vasilenko, V, et al. Socio- economic factors in the differential upsurge of tick-borne encephalitis in Central and Eastern Europe. Rev Med Virol 2008; 18:81–95.
- Fomsgaard, A, Christiansen, C, Bodker, R. First identification of tick-borne encephalitis in Denmark outside of Bornholm, August 2009. Euro Surveill 2009; 14:pii:19325.
- Volkova LI, Obraztsova RG. Abstracts of extended plenum of problem commission "Tick-borne and other viral encephalitis" RAMS. December 9-10, 2003. Moscow 2003; 47-49.
- Ternovoi VA, Kurzhukov GP, Sokolov YV, Ivanov GY, Ivanisenko VA, Loktev AV, et al. Tick-borne encephalitis with hemorrhagic syndrome, Novosibirsk region, Russia, 1999. Emerg Infect Dis 2003; 9:743-6.
- Pogodina VV, Bochkova NG, Koreshkova GV. Strain properties of the Aina/1448 serotype of the tick-borne encephalitis virus. Vopr Virusol 1981 Nov-Dec;(6):741-6.
- Zlobin VI, Mamayev LV, Djioyev YP, Kozlova IV. Genetic types of tick-borne encephalitis virus. Journal of Infection Pathology 1996; 4:10-12.
- Ecker M, Allison SL, Meixner T, Heinz FX. Sequence analysis and genetic classification of tick-borne encephalitis viruses from Europe and Asia. J Gen Virol 1999; 80( Pt 1):179-85.
- Bakhvalova VN, Rar VA, Tkachev SE, Dobrikova EI, Morozova OV. Genetic analysis of tick-borne encephalitis virus strains from West Siberia. Vopr Virusol 2000 Sep-Oct; 45(5):11-3.
- Pogodina VV, Karan' LS, Koliasnikova NM, Levina LS, Malenko GV, Gamova EG et al. Evolution of tick-borne encephalitis and a problem of evolution of its causative agent. Vopr Virusol 2007 Sep-Oct; 52(5):16-21.
- Gritsun TS, Frolova TV, Zhankov AI, Armesto M, Turner SL, Frolova MP Characterization of a Siberian virus isolated from a patient with progressive chronic tick-borne encephalitis. J Virol 2003 Jan; 77(1):25-36.
- Donoso Mantke O, Schädler R, Niedrig M. A survey on cases of tick-borne encephalitis in European countries. Euro Surveill 2008 Apr 24;13(17).
- Khasnatinov MA, Danchinova GA, Kulakova NV, Tungalag K, Arbatskaia EV, Mironova LV Genetic characteristics of the causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis in Mongolia. Vopr Virusol 2010 May-Jun; 55(3):27-32.
- Barrett PN, Dorner F, Ehrlich H, Plotkin SA. Tick-borne encephalitis virus vaccine. In: Plotkin S, Orenstein W. Vaccines. 4. Saunders; Philadelphia: 2004. pp. 1039-1055.
- Leonova GN, Pavlenko EV. Characterization of neutralizing antibodies to Far Eastern of tick-borne encephalitis virus subtype and the antibody avidity for four tick-borne encephalitis vaccines in human. Vaccine 2009; 27:2899-904.
- Zent O, Beran J, Jilg W, Mach Т, Banzhoff A. Clinical evaluation of a polygeline-free encephalitis vaccine for adolescents and adult. Vaccine 2003; 21:738-746.
- Loew-Baselli A, Konior R, Pavlova BG, Fritsch S, Poellabauer E, Maritsch F, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of the modified adult tick-borne encephalitis vaccine FSME-IMMUN: results of two large phase 3 clinical studies. Vaccine 2006; 24:5256-63.
- Wittermann C, Schöndorf I, Gniel D. Antibody response following administration of two paediatric tick-borne encephalitis vaccines using two different vaccination schedules. Vaccine 2009; 27:1661-6.
- Votyakov VI, Titov LP, Zlobin VI, Djioyev YP, Protas II, Samoylova TI, et al. Genotype and phenotype geterogenity of tick-borne encephalitis virus and problems of vaccine preparations development. Zdravookhraneniye 2001; 11:29-31.
- Jerusalimsky AP. Tick-borne encephalitis. Guidelines for doctors. Novosibirsk 2001.
- Ratnikova LI, Ter-Bagdasaryan LV, Mironov IL. Modern views on pathogenesis of tick-borne encephalitis. Epidemiologic and infection diseases 2002; 5:41-46.
- Pogodina VV, Frolova MP, Yerman BA, Chronic tick-borne encephalitis. Science. Novosibirsk, 1986.
- Holub M, Klučková Z, Beran O, Aster V, Lobovská A. Lymphocyte subset numbers in cerebrospinal fluid: comparison of tick-borne encephalitis and neuroborreliosis. Acta Neurol Scand 2002; 106:302–308.
- Burmistrova TG, Krasnova YI, Tolokonskaya NP, Gridina MN. Clinic and epidemiologic aspects of TBE. Abstracts of scientific conference "Problems of infection pathology in Siberian, Far Eastern and Far Northern regions" April 10-11, 1998; 32-33.
- Günther G, Haglund M, Lindquist L, Sköldenberg B, Forsgren M. Intrathecal IgM, IgA and IgG antibody response in tick-borne encephalitis. Clin Diagn Virol 1997; 8: 17–29.
- Holzmann, H. Diagnosis of tick-borne encephalitis. Vaccine 2003; 21:36–40.
- Robertson SJ, Mitzel DN, Taylor RT, Best SM, Bloom ME. Tick-borne flaviviruses: dissecting host immune responses and virus countermeasures. Immunol Res. 2009; 43(1-3):172-86.
- Votyakov VI, Zlobin VI, Mishayeva NP. Tick-borne encephalitis of Eurasia. Novosibirsk, 2002.
- Morozova OV. Property of some proteins of TBE virus. ScD in Biology Thesis. Koltsovo, 2001.
- Chernitsyna LO, Konenkov VI. Clinical immunogenetics of antiviral immune response in tick-borne encephalitis. SB of RAMS 2008; 6:61-65.
- Atrasheuskaya AV, Fredeking TM, Ignatyev GM. Changes in immune parameters and their correction in human cases of tick-borne encephalitis. Clin Exp Immunol 2003; 131:148-54.
- Kindberg E, Mickiene A, Ax C, Akerlind B, Vene S, Lindquist L, et al. A deletion in the chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) gene is associated with tick-borne encephalitis. J Infect Dis. 2008; 197:266-9.
- Biswas SM, Kar S, Singh R, Chakraborty D, Vipat V, Raut CG, et al. Immunomodulatory cytokines determine the outcome of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in mice. J Med Virol 2010 Feb;82(2):304-10.
- Misra UK, Srivastava R, Kalita J, Khan MY. Sequential changes in serum cytokines and chemokines in a rat model of Japanese encephalitis. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2010; 17(6):411-6.
- Mezentseva MV, Morozova OV, Grishechkin AE, Podchernyayeva RY, Shcherbenko VE, Vorobyova MS, Zlobin VI. Cytokines genes expression in infection caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus in human cells culture. Abstracts of international conference "Development of scientific researches and control on infection diseases", Saint-Petersburg, 2010, 31-32.
- Mezentseva MV, Morozova OV, Antoshina IF, Podchernyayeva RY, Shapoval IM, Zlobin VI. Cytokines genes expression in tick-borne encephalitis in human. Medical Immunology 2011; 3:399-400.
- Tolokonskaya NP, Kazakova YV, Nikonov SD. New approaches in therapy of tick-borne encephalitis. Abstracts of scientific practical conference with international participation "Medicine and Education in 21th century". Novosibirsk, 2005; 376-378.
Int J Biomed. 2011; 1(4):231-235. © 2011 International Medical Research and Development Corporation. All rights reserved.