Institute for Public Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: Ahmad Noor Ani, MBBS, MPH, Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Jln Bangsar, 50590 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. E-Mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
Point of care screening to identify individuals with abnormal blood lipid and glucose is recommended eligible individuals for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The study was done among 252 clients to determine the ability of CardioChek®PA in identifying individuals with abnormal blood levels of total cholesterol (TC) and Blood Glucose (BG), compared with a reference laboratory. Pearson correlation coefficients between reference laboratory and fingerstick test were fair to moderate and were statistically significant (p<0.05). Categorical agreement between fingerstick analysis and the reference laboratory was fair to moderate for TC and BG respectively. For TC, CardioChek®PA had 62.7% sensitivity, 76.1% specificity, and 76.4% Positive Predictive Value. For glucose, CardioChek®PA had 95.5% sensitivity, 85.4% specificity and 70.3% Positive Predictive Value. In conclusion, CardioChek®PA is a reliable tool to be used as screening tool for identification of individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease.
1. Number of discharges and deaths in government hospitals: Health Informatics Centre, Planning and Development Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia 2010.
2. Wan Azman RSV, Robayaah Zambahari. Malaysia-Acute Coronary syndromes Descriptive study (ACCORD): Evaluation of the compliance with existing guidelines in patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (Unstable Angina and Non-ST elevation Myocardial Infarction). Kuala Lumpur: Academy of Medicine, 2011.
3. Wan Azman SKH. Annual Report of the NCVD-ACS Registry, Year 2006. Kuala Lumpur : Association of Clinical Registries, Malaysia, 2008.
4. Goodman DS, Hulley SB, Clark LT, et al. Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Arch Intern Med 1988; 148(1):36-69.
5. Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. 4th Ed ed: Ministry of Health Malaysia, 2009.
6. Rodney G. Bowden PMK, DawnElla Rust. Assessing risk using different cholesterol measures. Public Health 2004;118::225–29.
7. TaylorJR, Lopez LM. Cholesterol: point-of-care testing. Ann Pharm 2004; 38:1252–57.
8. Bowden RG, Kingery P, Brizzolara J. Prediction accuracy and contrast of three dichotomous cholesterol measures. J Health Educ 1999; 30:284–89.
9. Havas S, Bishop R, Koumjian L, Reishman J, Wozenski S. Performance of the Reflotron in Massachusetts’ model system for blood cholesterol measurement. Am J Public Health 1992; 82:458–61.
10. Clinical Practice Guideline for Management of Dyslipidemia. 4th Ed ed: Ministry of HealtMalaysia, 2011.
11. Fegan DF. Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests: The Epidemiological Approach. Thailand: Biotec, 2012.
12. Khalid S. Khan PFWC. Commentary on Evaluation of a Clinical Test. I: Assesment of Reliability. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2001;108:562-67.
13. Statistical Packages For Social Sciences [program]. Version 19.0 version,2011.
14. Parikh P, Mochari H, Mosca L. Clinical Utility of a Fingerstick Technology to Identify Individuals with Abnormal Blood Lipids and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels. Am J Health Promot 2009; 23(4):279-82.
15. Barrett SC, Huffman FG, Johnson P. Validation of Finger-Prick Testing of Fasting Blood Glucose,Total Cholesterol, and HbA1c in Adolescents. The Journal of Near-Patient Testing and Technology 2011; 10(2):51-58.
16. Bowden RG, Kingery PM, Long L. Precision of a dry-chemistry method of lipid screening. Public Health 2006; 120(6):572–76.
17. Screening for Type 2 Diabetes: Report of a World Health Organization and International Diabetes Federation meeting.: Department of Noncommunicable Disease Management, WHO, Geneva, 2003.
18. Bortheiry AL, Malerbi DA, Franco LJ. The ROC curve in the evaluation of fasting capillary blood glucose as a screening test for diabetes and IGT. Diabetes Care 1994;17:1269-72.
19. Williams AD, Ahuja KDK, Brickwood K, Fell JW. Evaluation of the CardioChek Portable Whole Blood Analyzer for Use in the Fitness Industry. J Exercise Physiol 2011;14(6):62-71.
The fully formatted PDF version is available.
Int J Biomed. 2012; 2(2):132-135. ©2012 International Medical Research and Development Corporation. All rights reserved.