Scientific Centre for Family Health and Human Reproduction Problems; Irkutsk, the Russian Federation
*Corresponding author: Olga Berdina, Scientific Centre for Family Health and Human Reproduction Problems, Irkutsk, Russia. E-mail: email@example.com
Published: March 16, 2016. DOI: 10.21103/Article6(1)_OA11
Background: There is growing evidence that psychological stress contributes to hypertension and leads to changes in sleep structure. Insufficient sleep may lead to cardiovascular disease. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore specific sleep patterns in adolescents with hypertension.
Methods: The study population consisted of 35 young patients (14–17 years old): 20 adolescents with hypertension and 15 healthy adolescents. Polysomnography (PSG) was performed on all patients.
Results: Statistical analysis showed significant changes of sleep patterns in the hypertensive adolescents compared to the normotensive adolescents. Hypertension was associated with significantly decreased slow wave sleep (16.86±0.3 versus 22.7±0.3%; P<0.05) and increased REM (23.1±0.2 versus 30.75±0.2%; P<0.05). At the same time, sleep latency increased compared to subjects without hypertension (27.2±0.3 versus 11.2±0.4min, P<0.05). Wake time after sleep onset (WASO) was also significantly (19.1±0.2 versus 5.9±0.3min, P <0.05) longer than in healthy adolescents, which led to reduced sleep duration.
Conclusion: These results suggest that these kinds of sleep deviations are closely associated with some adaptive reaction to prolonged exposure of psychogenic factors in the hypertensive adolescents.
1. Danaei G, Finucane MM, Lin JK, Singh GM, Paciorek CJ, Cowan MJ, et al. National, regional, and global trends in systolic blood pressure since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 786 country-years and 5.4 million participants. Lancet 2011; 377(9765):568–577.
2. Bao W, Threefoot SA, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. Essential hypertension predicted by tracking of elevated blood pressure from childhood to adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Hypertens 1995; 8(7):657–65.
3. Sun SS, Grave GD, Siervogel RM, Pickoff AA, Arslanian SS, Daniels SR. Systolic blood pressure in childhood predicts hypertension and metabolic syndrome later in life. Pediatrics. 2007; 119(2):237–46.
4. Dimsdale JE. Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 51(13):1237–46.
5. Esler M. Heart and mind: psychogenic cardiovascular disease. J Hypertens 2009; 27(4):692–5.
6. Claude J. Mental stress, hypertension and the baroreflex: what's new? J Hypertens 2009; 27(1): 31–3.
7. Palagini L, Drake CL, Gehrman P, Meerlo P, Riemann D. Early-life origin of adult insomnia: does prenatal–early-life stress play a role? Sleep med 2015; 16(4):446–56.
8. Winzeler K, Voellmin A, Schäfer V, Meyer AH, Cajochen C, Wilhelm FH, et al. Daily stress, presleep arousal, and sleep in healthy young women: a daily life computerized sleep diary and actigraphy study. Sleep med 2014; 15(3):359–66.
9. Raschke F, Fischer J. “Arousal” in der Schlafmedizin. Somnologie.1997; 2, 59-64 [Article in German]
10. Michels N, Clays E, De Buyzere M, Vanaelst B, De Henauw S, Sioen I. Children’s sleep and autonomic function: low sleep quality has an impact on heart rate variability. Sleep 2013; 36(12):1939-46.
11. Knutson KL. Sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010; 24(5):731-43.
12. Madaeva I, Kolesnikova L, Dolgikh V, Berdina O. Sleep-disordered breathing in 15-year-old boy with arterial hypertension. Respir Med Case Rep 2012; 8: 5–9.
13. Carr M, Nielsen T. Morning rapid eye movement sleep naps facilitate broad access to emotional semantic networks. Sleep 2015; 38(3):433–43.
14. Iber C, Ancoli-Israel S, Chesson A, Quan SF for the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events: Rules, Terminology and Technical Specifications, 1st ed.: Westchester, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2007.
15. Gerin W, Chaplin W, Schwartz JE, Holland J, Alter R, Wheeler R et al. Sustained blood pressure increase after an acute stressor: the effects of the 11 September 2001 attack on the New York City World Trade Center. J Hypertens 2005; 23(2):279–84.
16. Trudel-Fitzgerald C, Boehm J, Kivimaki M, Kubzansky L. Taking the tension out of hypertension: a prospective study of psychological well being and hypertension J Hypertens 2014; 32(6):1222–8.
17. Shneerson JM. Sleep medicine: a guide to sleep and its disorders. 2nd ed. Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2005.
18. Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 5th Ed. Saunders; 2011.
The fully formatted PDF version is available.
Int J Biomed. 2016; 6(1):53-55. © 2016 International Medical Research and Development Corporation. All rights reserved.