Complex Assessment of Risk Factors for the Development of Cardiovascular Calcification in Hemodialysis Patients

Liliya I. Rudenko, PhD*; Mikhail M. Batyushin, PhD, ScD; Aleksandr A. Kastanayan, PhD, ScD; Dmitriy G. Pasechnik, PhD, ScD; Igor V. Dudarev; Elena A. Kartashova, PhD; Ekaterina S. Lapina

Rostov State Medical University; Rostov-on-Don, the Russian Federation

*Corresponding author: Liliya I. Rudenko, PhD. Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia. E-mail:

Published: March 16, 2016. DOI: 10.21103/Article6(1)_OA4


The aim of the present study was the integrated assessment of the role of non-traditional factors (inflammation, malnutrition, calcium-phosphorus disorder and imbalance in the concentration of inducers and inhibitors of calcification) in forming cardiovascular calcification (CVC) and the structural-functional rearrangement of LV myocardium in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) receiving hemodialysis (HD).

Materials and Methods: The present study included 84 HD patients with CKD 5D stage. We evaluated 3 components of the Dialysis Malnutrition Score (DMS), according to which body mass index (BMI), the level of serum albumin, and the percent saturation of transferrin with iron were determined. We also analyzed CRP, fibrinogen, and beta-2 microglobulin, and calculated the number of points (from zero to 2) according to the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), which allowed us to combine indicators of inflammation and make a common prognostic assessment. 

The serum levels of protein alpha-Klotho и FGF-23 were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Echocardiographic measurements were performed using B-mode, M-mode and Doppler-mode. Different patterns of LV geometry were identified according to Ganau et al. (1992). 

The severity of calcification was estimated by a semi-quantitative scale for assessing the degree of calcification of heart structures according to the National recommendations for CKD-MBD (2010).

Results: The increased risk for development of CVC, LVH, and diastolic dysfunction was associated with markers of malnutrition, anemia, and inflammation in HD patients. Reduced serum alpha-Klotho level, hypoalbuminemia and a high level of FGF-23 had a prognostic value in CVC formation.

end-stage renal disease; renal replacement therapy; cardiovascular calcification.
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