Role of the Immunological Markers in the Pathogenesis of Symptomatic Epilepsy in Children

Aliye E. Khalilova, PhD¹; Yokudhon N. Madjidova, PhD, ScD¹*; Adolat A. Ismailova, PhD, ScD²

¹Tashkent Medical Pediatric Institute; ²Republican Scientific Center of Immunology. Tashkent, Uzbekistan

*Corresponding author:  Prof. Yokudhon N. Madjidova, MD, PhD. Head of Department of Neurology, Pediatric Neurology and Medical Genetics of Tashkent Medical Pediatric Institute. Tashkent, Uzbekistan. E-mail:

Published: December 15, 2017.  doi: 10.21103/Article7(4)_OA1


The objective of our study was to determine the profile of the spontaneous and mitogen-induced cytokine production in children with symptomatic epilepsy of different etiologies.
Materials and Methods: We examined 38 patients (aged between 3 and 18 years) with consequences of strokes (18.4%), neuroinfections (36.8%), neonatal brain injury (28.9%), and brain development anomalies (15.8%). The levels of spontaneous and mitogen-induced production of the main cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-1β, TNFα) were determined by ELISA.
Results: We traced the decrease and/or inhibition in the production of the main regulatory cytokines of monocyte-macrophage profile (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6) and adaptive immunity (IL-2) in children with symptomatic epilepsy; and we also revealed the insufficiency of the innate immunity factors in children, which was expressed in the suppression of the regulatory cytokine production, even with in vitro stimulation.

children ● symptomatic epilepsy ● innate immunity ● pro-inflammatory cytokine
  1. WHO. Epilepsy. Fact sheet. Updated February 2017. Available from:
  2. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Geneva: WHO; 2001.
  3. Vasilyeva OA, Gromov SA, Lipatova LV, Petrov АМ. [Neuroantigenic landscape with various diseases of the central nervous system]. Neuroimmunology. 2005;3(2):164- 172. [Article in Russian].
  4. Lisyaniy NI. [Classification of immune disorders in nerve diseases and their characteristics]. Neuroimmunology.2004; 2(2):61-62. [Article in Russian].
  5. Evseev VA, Mikovskaia OI [Neuroimmunopathology: immunoaggression, dysregulation, adoptive immunotherapy prospects].  Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2002; 102(5):60-64. [Article in Russian].
  6. Lipatova LV, Serebryannaya NB, Sivakova NA, Kapustina Т.V. Experience in the use of regulatory cytokines in the treatment of epilepsy. Neuroimmunology. 2015; 12(1-2):63-64. [Article in Russian].
  7. Lisyaniy N.I. Congenital and acquired immunity of the brain. Neuroimmunology.2015; 12(1-2:64. [Article in Russian].
  8. Madjidova YoN, Khalilova AE, Sharipova NR. Revealing of risk factors symptomatic epilepsy at secondary encephalitis. Epilepsy and paroxysmal conditions. 2014; 6(4):50-54. [Article in Russian].
  9. Hauser V. Descriptive epidemiology of epilepsy. In: Guseva EI, Geht AB, editors. Epilepsy: fundamental, clinical and social aspect. Moscow: APKIPPRO; 2013:53-83.
  10. Dinarello CA. Biologic basis for interleukin-1 in disease. Blood. 1996;87(6):2095-147.
  11. Vasilyeva OA, Lipatova LV, Gromov SA On the issue of neuroimmune disorders and their role in the treatment of patients with resistant forms of epilepsy. Siberian Herald of Psychiatry and Addiction Psychiatry. 2006; Suppl 41:64 - 66. [Article in Russian].
  12. Bijak M, Dziedzic A, Synowiec E, Sliwinski T, Saluk-Bijak J. Flavonolignans Inhibit IL1-β-Induced Cross-Talk between Blood Platelets and Leukocytes. Nutrients. 2017;9(9). pii: E1022. doi: 10.3390/nu9091022.
  13. Sinha S, Patil SA, Jayalekshmy V, Satishchandra P. Do cytokines have any role in epilepsy? Epilepsy Res. 2008 Dec;82(2-3):171-6. doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2008.07.018.
  14. Li G, Bauer S, Nowak M, Norwood B, Tackenberg B, Rosenow F, et al. Cytokines and epilepsy. Seizure. 2011 Apr;20(3):249-56. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2010.12.005.
  15. Khalilova AE, Majidova YoN. Epilepsy in children with stroke. Epilepsy and paroxysmal conditions. 2016; 8(4):34-38. [Article in Russian].
  16. Neveu PJ. Cerebral lateralization and the immune system. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2002;52:303-23.
  17. Olmos G1, Lladó J1.Tumor necrosis factor alpha: a link between neuroinflammation and excitotoxicity. Mediators Inflamm. 2014;2014:861231. doi: 10.1155/2014/861231.
  18. Montgomery SL, Bowers WJ.Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and the roles it plays in homeostatic and degenerative processes within the central nervous system.J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2012;7(1):42-59. doi: 10.1007/s11481-011-9287-2.

The fully formatted PDF version is available.
Download Article
International Journal of Biomedicine. 2017;7(4):282-285. ©2017 International Medical Research and Development Corporation. All rights reserved.