¹Irkutsk Scientific Center of Surgery and Traumatology; ²Pharmasyntez. Irkutsk, the Russian Federation
*Corresponding author: Prof. Irina A. Shurygina, PhD, ScD. Irkutsk Scientific Center of Surgery and Traumatology. Irkutsk, the Russian Federation, E-mail: email@example.com
Published: December 15, 2017. doi: 10.21103/Article7(4)_OA4
Background: This study sought to determine the dynamics of IL gene expression during serous membrane damage using an animal model of aseptic peritoneal injury.
Methods: In our study, we used 35 male Wistar rats. Macroscopic and microscopic studies were conducted between 6 hours and 30 days after peritoneal damage was induced. In the damaged peritoneal area, we assessed IL gene expression across the experimental timeframe.
Results: We found that the majority of the studied genes had three characteristic peaks in expression: at 6 hours, on day 3, and on day 14. These effects were observed for chemokine (CXC motif) ligands 1 and 3, IL1b, and IL6. Two peaks of increased expression (on days 3 and 14) were noted for CXCL1, CXCL5, INFγ, IL2, IL4, IL10, TNF, and CD40LG.
Conclusion: We hypothesize that the absence of attention to the changes that occur in the peritoneum after aseptic damage has prevented research from focusing on the important stage of the formation of the richly vascularized adhesions that are unable to regress. Based on the results of our study, we conclude that it is critically important to influence the last wave of IL expression activation (2 weeks after aseptic peritoneum damage) to effectively prevent adhesion formation.
1. Katada J, Saito H, Ohashi A. Significance of cyclooxygenase-2 induced via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in mechanical stimulus-induced peritoneal adhesion in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;313(1): 286-292.
2. Herwig R, Glodny B, Kühle C, Schlüter B, Brinkmann OA, Strasser H, et al. Early identification of peritonitis by peritoneal cytokine measurement. Dis Colon Rectum. 2002; 45(4) 514-21.
3. Hildebrand F, Pape HC, Krettek C. [The importance of cytokines in the posttraumatic inflammatory reaction]. Unfallchirurg 2005; 108(10):793-803. [Article in German].
4. Scheingraber S, Bauerfeind F, Böhme J, Dralle H. Limits of peritoneal cytokine measurements during abdominal lavage treatment for intraabdominal sepsis. Am J Surg 2001; 181(4): 301-8.
5. Riché F, Gayat E, Collet C, Matéo J, Laisné MJ, Launay JM, et al. Local and systemic innate immune response to secondary human peritonitis. Crit Care 2013; 17(5): R201. doi: 10.1186/cc12895.
6. Fredriksson F, Christofferson RH, Carlsson PO, Lilja HE. Locally increased concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in an experimental intraabdominal adhesion model. J Pediatr Surg 2014; 49(10):1480-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2014.03.010
7. Martineau L, Shek PN. Peritoneal cytokine concentrations and survival outcome in an experimental bacterial infusion model of peritonitis. Crit Care Med. 2000; 28(3): 788-94.
8. Badiu DC, Paunescu V, Aungurenci A, Pasarica D. Proinflammatory cytokines in peritonitis. J Med Life 2011; 4(2):158-62.
9. Kumar AT, Sudhir U, Punith K, Kumar R, Ravi Kumar VN, Rao MY. Cytokine profile in elderly patients with sepsis. Indian J Crit Care Med 2009; 13(2):74-8. doi: 10.4103/0972-5229.56052.
10. Wang G, Wu K, Li W, Zhao E, Shi L, Wang J, et al. Role of IL-17 and TGF-β in peritoneal adhesion formation after surgical trauma. Wound Repair Regen 2014; 22(5): 631-9. doi: 10.1111/wrr.12203.
11. Ayushinova NI, Lepekhova SA, Shurygina IA, Roj TA, Shurygin MG, Zaritskaja LV, Gol'dberg OA. Method for simulating abdominal commissures. Patent RU 2467401, 27.07.2011.
12. Ayushinova NI, Shurygina IA, Shurygin MG, Balykina AV, Malgataeva ER, Popova AD, Yankelevich SA. [Experimental model for developing of ways to prevent adhesions in the abdominal cavity]. Siberian Med J 2012;109(2):51-3. [Article in Russian].
13. Cheong YC, Laird SM, Shelton JB, Ledger WL, Li TC, Cooke ID. The correlation of adhesions and peritoneal fluid cytokine concentrations: a pilot study. Hum Reprod. 2002; 17(4):1039-45.
14. Ambler DR, Fletcher NM, Diamond MP, Saed GM. Effects of hypoxia on the expression of inflammatory markers IL-6 and TNF-a in human normal peritoneal and adhesion fibroblasts. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2012; 58(6):324-9. doi: 10.3109/19396368.2012.713439.
15. Saed GM, Zhang W, Diamond MP. Molecular characterization of fibroblasts isolated from human peritoneum and adhesions. Fertil Steril. 2001;75(4):763-8.
The fully formatted PDF version is available.
International Journal of Biomedicine. 2017;7(4):293-297. ©2017 International Medical Research and Development Corporation. All rights reserved.