Endogenous Intoxication and the Role of Antioxidants in Motion Activity Correction with Traumatic Brain Injury in Rat Model

Anastasia V. Polozova, Gennady A. Bojarinov, Marina N. Ivashchenko, Аleksandr G. Samodelkin, Anna V. Deryugina

International Journal of Biomedicine. 2019;9(1):61-65.
DOI: 10.21103/Article9(1)_OA12
Originally published March 15, 2019


The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of cytoflavin and mexicor in the posttraumatic period of traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Materials and Methods: The experiments were carried out on 60 white non pedigree female rats weighing 180-200 g, with 15 rats in each series. TBI was modeled by a free-falling weight drop of 100 g from a height of 80 cm on the parietal-occipital area of the head. Blood samples were taken from the sublingual vein in an amount of 2.0 ml on Days 1, 3, 7, and 12 after the alteration. After TBI, in Group 1, 15 rats received an intraperitoneal injection of 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine succinate (mexicor) for 10 days in a daily dose of 8.0 mg/kg. In Group 2, 15 rats received an intraperitoneal injection of cytoflavin for 10 days in a daily dose of 0.2 ml/kg. The activity of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant protection system (ASO) in the blood plasma was determined by a biochemicoluminescence method. Analysis of animal motion activity included the determination of the ability to balance and to stay at the wooden bar, time spent for moving on the bar from the bright light source to the darkroom, and paw slip frequency.
Results: Mexicor and cytoflavin decreased the level of oxidative processes in rat model with TBI and the development of secondary brain injury. The positive dynamics in restoring pro- and antioxidant system balance was combined with positive changes in motor function.

traumatic brain injury • rats • lipid peroxidation • antioxidant protection system
  1. Galgano M, Toshkezi G, Qiu X, Russell T, Chin L, Zhao LR. Traumatic Brain Injury: Current Treatment Strategies and Future Endeavors. Cell Transplant. 2017;26(7):1118-1130. doi: 10.1177/0963689717714102.
  2. Boyarinov GA, Deryugina AV, Yakovleva EI, Zaitsev RR, Shumilova AV, Bugrova ML, et al. Pharmacological correction of microcirculation in rats suffering from traumatic brain injury. Cell and Tissue Biology. 2017;11(1):65–72.
  3. Bar-Or D, Bar-Or R, Rael LT, Brody EN. Oxidative stress in severe acute illness. Redox Biol. 2015;4:340-5. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2015.01.006.
  4. Quillinan N, Herson PS, Traystman RJ. Neuropathophysiology of Brain Injury. Anesthesiol Clin. 2016;34(3):453-64. doi: 10.1016/j.anclin.2016.04.011.
  5. Stephens JA, Salorio CE, Gomes JP, Nebel MB, Mostofsky SH, Suskauer SJ. Response Inhibition Deficits and Altered Motor Network Connectivity in the Chronic Phase of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury. J Neurotrauma. 2017;34(22):3117-3123. doi: 10.1089/neu.2017.5081.
  6.  Golikov AP, Mikhin VP, Boĭtsov SA, Bogoslovskaia EN, Vesel'eva NV, Luk'ianov MM, Rudnev DV, Frolov AA. [Efficacy of cytoprotective agent Mexicor in urgent cardiology]. Ter Arkh. 2004;76(4):60-5. [Article in Russian]
  7. Bojarinov GA, Kotlov IS, Brichkin JuD. хEfficiency of cytoprotectors in the prevention of reperfusion syndrome in patients with myocardial infarction in the thrombolytic therapyъ. Poliklinika. 2010;(6):110–116. [Article in Russian].
  8. Shulginova AA, Konoplya AI, Bystrova NA. Disorders of the immune status in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia; differentiated pharmacological correction. Research Results in Pharmacology. 2018;4(2):105-123.
  9. Cherniy VI, Andronova IA, Gorodnik GA, Nazarenko VK, Cherniy TV. [The role and place of cytoflavin in the management of severe traumatic brain injury]. Journal of Neuroscience of B.M. Mankovsky. 2015;(3):21–33. [Article in Russian].
  10. Volchegorskii IA, Rassokhina LM, Miroshnichenko IY. [Cerebroprotective effects of emoxipin, reamberin, and mexidol in alloxan diabetes]. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2013;155(1):56-64.
  11. Shakhmardanova SA, Gulevskya ON, Khananashvili YaA,  Zelenskaya AV, Nefedov DA, Galenko-Yaroshevsky PA. [Succinic and fumaric acid drugs for prevention and treatment of various diseases]. Journal of Fundamental Medicine and Biology 2016;(3):16-30. [Article in Russian].
  12. Firsov AA. New aspects of modern cytoprotector therapy on the example of experience of the clinical use of «Mexikor» preparation. Sovremennaya Meditsina. 2017;5:110-112. [Article in Russian].
  13. Tsymbalyuk VI, Kochin OV. Experimental modeling of traumatic brain injury. Ukrainian Neurological Journal. 2008;2:10–12. [Article in Russian].
  14. Kuz'mina EI, Nelyubin AS, Shchennikova MK. [The use of induced chemiluminescence to evaluate free radical reactions in biological substrates]. Mezhvuzovskij sbornik biohimii i biofiziki mikroorganizmov. 1983:179–183. [Article in Russian].
  15. Volchegorskiĭ IA, Nalimov AG, Iarovinskiĭ BG, Lifshits RI. [Comparison of various approaches to the determination of the products of lipid peroxidation in heptane-isopropanol extracts of blood]. Vopr Med Khim. 1989;35(1):127-31.[Article in Russian]
  16. Malakhova MYa. [Endogenous intoxication as a reflection of compensatory restructuring of metabolic processes in the body]. Efferentnaya Terapiya, 2000;34:3–14. [Article in Russian].
  17. Saatman KE, Murai H, Bartus RT, Smith DH, Hayward NJ, Perri BR, McIntosh TK. Calpain inhibitor AK295 attenuates motor and cognitive deficits following experimental brain injury in the rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93(8):3428-33.
  18. Reed AR, Welsh DG. Secondary injury in traumatic brain injury patients – a prospective study. S Afr Med J. 2000;92(3):221-4.
  19. Ekdahl CT. Microglial activation – tuning and pruning adult neurogenesis. Front Pharmacol. 2012;3:41. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2012.00041.
  20. Antipenko EA, Derugina AV, Gustov AV. [An effect of cytoprotective therapy on stress resistance and compensatory abilities of patients with chronic cerebral ischemia]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2015;115(12):74-78. doi: 10.17116/jnevro201511511274-78. [Article in Russian].
  21. Deryugina AV, Shumilova AV, Filippenko ES, Galkina YV, Simutis IS, Boyarinov GA. Functional and Biochemical Parameters of Erythrocytes during Mexicor Treatment in Posttraumatic Period after Experimental Blood Loss and Combined Traumatic Brain Injury. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2017;164(1):26-29. doi: 10.1007/s10517-017-3918-4.

Download Article
Received February 14, 2019.
Accepted March 14, 2019.
©2019 International Medical Research and Development Corporation.